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    Download citrix and duo pcLave and Wenger (1991) view situated learning not only as a means of more clearly defining learning contexts, but as a setting in which deeper understandings of knowledge develop.
    Download citrix and duo pcLave and Wenger add to a basic conceptualization of apprenticeship by not only considering the actions and knowledge of the master and the apprentice, but also draw back to examine the cultural background in which an apprenticeship unfolds.
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    Download citrix and duo pcIn the next chapter, I turn to Clay's theory of literacy processing, which frames my observations in this inquiry.
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    Download citrix and duo pcWhile this is a general principle of instruction in Reading Recovery, there is no precise way to specify how this is to be done.
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    Andragogy: Adult Learning Andragogy, or adult learning, has been described by Knowles (1984) who distinguishes it from pedagogy, the learning of children.
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    In Knowles' view, the teacher of adults would set learners off with enough information to get started, but later provide feedback and assistance based on the adults' experiences trying the task.
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    Sociocultural Perspective of Learning Differing from behaviorist or cognitive models of learning, which are concerned with the observable artifacts and thinking processes associated with learning, a sociocultural perspective views learning as socially situated (Vygotsky, 1978).
    Knowles (1984) states that adults are most interested in learning that has immediate application to their job or personal life.
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    In order for any community of practice to continue to exist, it must accept some new members, but the controls placed around access will shape its size and growth.
    Gaffney and Anderson (1991) identify two tiers of scaffolding within the processes of teaching and learning in the context of teachers training to become Reading Recovery teachers.
    The learners are not merely viewed as empty vessels into which knowledge is poured, but as carrying experience which are catalysts to their own learning.
    Download citrix and duo pcIn the Reading Recovery context, teachers learn the pedagogy of the intervention through the process of teaching children, coming to assume the role of a Reading Recovery teacher, and evolving in their practice throughout the year of training.
    As the learner gains competence with a task, the teacher can gradually remove the supports.
    Taking the stance that communities of practice are defined by the communities' standards and practices, he acknowledges that a period of socialization, or training, as it is referred to in the Reading Recovery community, is required for new members to join.
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    Download citrix and duo pcChapter 2, Theoretical Frame 32 Teachers' level of comfort and engagement within the Reading Recovery training may then, in part, hinge upon the degree of tension they feel as they navigate between socializing and collaborative aspects of the training.
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    Download citrix and duo pcHowever, at this level of challenge, the learner will require some degree of support from the teacher in order to successfully complete the task at hand.
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    Download citrix and duo pcChapter 12: A discussion of the findings and their significance.
    Download citrix and duo pcFrom a situated learning viewpoint, learners are conceptualized as learning through the filter of their experience and beliefs.
    Download citrix and duo pcThat is to say, the experiences of community practice undertaken by learners help them define and articulate the knowledge of the community.
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    As well, Knowles (1984) encouraged adult learning to be more exploratory, so that learners could discover things and learn from their early mistakes.
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    Most of their examples described adult learners and settings of adult education.
    Why do we have to learn this?
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    Download citrix and duo pcThis interaction with the learner, and the teachers' judgments of how much support to provide and when to gradually fade the assistance is what Wood and colleagues coined as providing scaffolded instruction.
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    Research Questions In my dissertation research, I investigate if and how teacher learning acquired in Reading Recovery training transfers to the context of primary (Kindergarten, Grade One, or Grade Two) classroom literacy instruction.
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    The teacher's support is seen as a flexible, temporary, and customized framework put into place to support the learner.
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    First, I wish to operationalize how I view and discuss adults' learning within a social context and how the transfer of learning has been described.
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    Download citrix and duo pcInstructional decisions and actions are based on observation and interpretation of the child's literacy performance.
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    In this study, I am examining the learning of adults, specifically teachers who have trained in Reading Recovery.
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    Download citrix and duo pcThe novice extends their understanding within the community by living the shared experience of the other members of the community.
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    Group discussion during and after demonstration lessons helps link this knowledge into systems that support instruction.
    In either case, the cultural practices of the community dictate the treatment and scope of practice of the newcomers.
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    Knowledge is nurtured within the community by talking with another who has walked the same path.
    Download citrix and duo pcThese authors and others seem to have drawn upon Clay's theory or their own professional experience in Reading Recovery to inform parts of their perspectives of classroom literacy instruction.
    Download citrix and duo pcOperationalizing Teacher Learning In preparation for this inquiry, I reviewed recent research examining the characteristics of exemplary primary literacy teachers (see Chapter 4).
    Download citrix and duo pcWhat controls and standards does a community have in place to maintain who will and will not be accepted?
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    Download citrix and duo pcOver their lives, adults accumulate many experiences (both successes and failures) and refer to them as a resource for learning.
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