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    Download jpeg 70The LH is a large structure and has multiple functions.
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    This suggests that the PPTg may facilitate feedforward and feedback loops with SNc via reciprocal projections.
    Discrete nuclei within the amygdala have direct and indirect projections to the PAG, which are involved in defensive locomotion (Gross and Canteras, 2012).
    This permits the SC to trigger approach or avoidance responses based on visuospatial input.
    This suggests that GABAergic and glutamatergic MLR cells collectively control decelerating and accelerating locomotor behaviors.
    In contrast, iMSNs express dopamine D2 receptors and are inhibited by dopamine.
    Download jpeg 70Download jpeg 70.
    Download jpeg 70The mammalian startle response is characterized by fast twitch of facial and body muscles as well as an arrest of ongoing movement in response to a sudden and intense sensory stimulus (Koch, 1999).
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    Subsequent studies identified five subregions that can be differentiated based on anatomy, physiology, and behavioral outcomes when activated (Carrive, 1993).
    The SC is an integral player in triggering appropriate locomotor responses based on novel visual stimuli in the environment.
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    The descending control of locomotor circuits in response to aversive stimuli has not been fully explored.
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    Some studies have reported beneficial effects but other studies are less supportive.
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    Download jpeg 70Hayashi, 1984; Born and Schmidt, 2008) and primary visual cortex to orient the eyes, head, and body movement toward objects of interest (reviews Sparks, 1986; Grillner et al.
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    Ascending connectivity has been omitted for clarity.
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    Download jpeg 70The role of the amygdala in both appetitive and aversive locomotor behavior will be revisited separately in the following sections (sections from Motivation to Approach: Execution of Forward Locomotion and Reflexive Startle Response Driven by Sudden External Sensory Stimuli).
    Download jpeg 70These data support a possibility for a descending dopamine system in mammalian locomotor control.
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    Download jpeg 70MRF, and could also modulate cognition in a broader sense, via its outputs to ascending monoaminergic and cholinergic systems such as: noradrenergic LC, dopaminergic SNc and VTA, serotonergic raphe, and the cholinergic nucleus basalis (Davis and Whalen, 2001; Sara, 2009).
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    Sequentially, the GPe sends inhibitory output to excitatory STh that targets the SNr.
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    The A13 and A11 dopaminergic nuclei are in the ZI and the rostral portion of the posterior hypothalamus, respectively.
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    Initial reports suggested the site for eliciting locomotion in the cat was the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (abbreviated as STh in rodents); and thus, it was named the subthalamic locomotor region (SLR) (Grossman, 1958; Kaelber and Smith, 1979).
    Download jpeg 70.
    Download jpeg 70It is thought that the cholinergic MLR population modulates locomotion, but activation of these cells is not sufficient to elicit a locomotor bout.
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    There is no doubt that the use of different terms has led to confusion in the field.
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    Download jpeg 70In this example a mouse encounters an aversive trigger (B top, predatory threat) activating nuclei associated with avoidance behaviors (C).
    Alternatively, if this circuit is glutamatergic, activation of GABAergic MLR neurons could suppress glutamatergic MLR output, producing motor arrest (see section Reflexive Startle Response Driven by Sudden External Sensory Stimuli).
    Download jpeg 70It may be noted here that in some of these experiments PPTg also included overlapping brain regions including the CnF.
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    Here we will examine work focused on how locomotion toward a rewarding stimulus is achieved.
    One possibility is that this projection is inhibitory in nature, allowing for locomotion to occur via disinhibition of the MLR.
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    The NAc is divided into two subregions: the shell and the core.
    Download jpeg 70These regions must interact with other brain areas to produce behaviorally relevant locomotion.
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    The PPN, referred to as the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in rodents (Paxinos and Franklin, 2008) and sometimes the nucleus tegmenti pedulculopontinus in humans (Schaltenbrand and Wahren, 1977), is located in the ventrolateral portion of the MLR (Olszewski and Baxter, 1954).
    Download jpeg 70Download jpeg 70.
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    Download jpeg 70The number of ascending dopaminergic collaterals may be related to evolutionary expansion of the basal ganglia (Grillner and Robertson, 2016; Ryczko and Dubuc, 2017).
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    Download jpeg 70Interestingly, they reported separate populations of PPTg neurons independently code for reward or movement.
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    Download jpeg 70This is not the case in the cat where the CnF was found to project to the first cervical segment.
    Dopamine release within the NAc is an important determinant of reward processing.
    In comparison to the startle response, which is reflexive in nature, the choice between escaping a stimulus and freezing is highly dependent on contextual cues.
    The association between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus required may involve memory processing related to fear.
    Download jpeg 70Download jpeg 70?
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    Download jpeg 70The NAc has diverse outputs that enable recruitment of locomotor circuits.
    Download jpeg 70Both external and internal cues interact with basal ganglia (BG) circuits for precise execution and selection of appropriate locomotor behavior.
    Download jpeg 70Download jpeg 70.
    Download jpeg 70This population of inhibitory cells was found to be able to drive locomotor behavior when activated, and suppress locomotion when inhibited.
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